Fundamento Tonsilaba 2005
A tonpetso (pronounced "tawn-pettsaw") starts with a tonsigno ("tawn-siggnaw") and column (#:). The name of the piece or petso may be written between the tonsigno and the column. A name consisting of several words is either separated from the tonsigno by a blank space or written between quotation marks (" "). A petso which is not within brackets ends with a tonsigno and full point (#.) or the start of the next petso. Subordinate petsos may be within their own brackets with or without their own tonsignos. The division of a petso into subordinate petsos may also be shown by a malaltiga ("mullull-teegah") sign in front of the tonsigno ( ,# ) and the aggregation of several petsos into a musical collection by an altiga ("ull-teegah") sign ( '# ), both in several steps using several altiga or malaltiga signs. A petso reference is written with a tonsigno in front of the petso name, either without a blank space or within quotation marks (#" "). A name is separated from a subordinate name by a full stop. A petso referred to in another petso is played again.
# A Tonpeco: .... #.
(#"Part #2": .... )
When a petso is repeated in various ways a certain number of times, the number and a multiplication sign (*) is written at the start of each part which is played in the same manner every time. The number is called fojnombro (pronounced "foy-nombraw") and does not have to be written after the first multiplication sign. A part of the petso which is not played every time starts with an apostrophy (') and a number or numbers indicating which times it is played. Such numbers are called fojnumeros (pronounced "foynoo-mairaws"). Fojnumeros may be separated by commas (,) and a group of consecutive fojnumeros shown with a dash (-). A negative sign in front of the apostrophy (-') indicates, on the contrary, that the part is not to be played those times. A multiplication sign and a number immediately after a petso bracket indicates how many times the whole petso is played. Such a whole repetition is not considered to be part of the petso as such. The number 2 at a multiplication sign does not have to be written. A variable or undefined number is indicated by a capital consonant followed by a number.
(#: .... 3* .... '1,3 .... '2 .... * .... )
(#: .... 3* .... '1-2 .... '3 .... )
(#: .... 4* .... -'4 .... '4 .... )
(#: .... )*3
(#: .... )*X1
A taktsilabo (pronounced "tucktsee-lahbaw") is a syllable indicating a sound, process or happening fixed in time. A taktsilabo consists of a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, z and others) and a vowel (a, e, i, o, u and others). A simple taktsilabo consists of one consonant and one vowel (ba). The consonant marks the stroke (tuck). The vowels are called toneros ("tawn-airaws") and show the duration of the sound or movement. In a taktsilabo consisting of various vowels, only the last kind of vowel is tonero. A taktsilabo is written in a tonpetso or in a silabo ("see-lahbaw") bracket after a tonsigno (#[ ]).
#[Ba] #[ba] #[ta]
(#: Ba bata tata Ba)
A tonpetso consists of takteros (pronounced "tuck-terraws"). A taktero is one or several taktsilabos or parts of taktsilabos which are written together as one word. All toneros (vowels) in the same taktero are counted as being of equal duration. However, the total duration of toneros within a silabo bracket ([ ]) equals that of a tonero in the same taktero outside the bracket. A number immediately after a tonero or silabo bracket indicates its duration in terms of number of toneros. An empty silabo bracket signifies a missing tonero, which reduces the duration of the taktero. The taktsilabo of silence (pause) is a small mute consonant (h) with the same duration as a tonero. Four points (....) signify unwritten takteros.
(#: Bata ta Bata ta[bata])
(#: Bata ta Bata taabata)
(#: Bata ta h ta2bata)
(#: Bata ta h ta .... )
A measure consists of takteros. The downbeat of the measure is written with a measure slash (/) in front of the first tonero of the measure. A number immediately after the measure slash is the ordinal number of the measure. In a petso with a defined number of takteros in each measure, takteros at the end of a measure do not have to be written if they are merely a prolongation of a preceding taktsilabo. If a measure connecting two petsos is too long or too short, in the first place they are connected at the position of a dash (-), in the second place silent taktsilabos (h) are removed from the point of connection and in the third place the end of the first petso is either prolonged or cut.
(#: /Bata ta Bata ta[bata] /Bata ta Bata taabata /Bata ta h ta2bata /Bata ta .... )
(#: /1Bata ta Bata ta[bata] /2Bata ta Bata taabata /Bata ta h ta2bata /4Bata ta .... )
(#: <:4> /Ba a ta a /Ba a a a /Ba /Ba /Ba /Ba .... )
A tonrimarko (pronounced "tawnree-markaw") contains indikos ("in-deekaws"), indicating the manner of playing or commenting the petso. A rimarko ("ree-markaw") is written in rimarko brackets (< >). The name of the rimarko is written within the brackets, followed by column. Such a name may serve as an indiko in another rimarko. Indikos are separated by semicolon (;) or by a comma and a blank space (, ). A taktsilabo text (i. e. taktsilabos, undefined or variable numbers etc.) within a tonrimarko is written in silabo brackets (<[ ]>). An indiko in a rimarko is valid until the end of the immediately surrounding tonpetso of the same level or until a contradictory new indiko. Outside of a tonpetso, a tonsigno in front of a rimarko ( #< >) indicates its tonrimarko status.
#<Drumsilabos: [Ba]=Big bassdrum;[ba]=Small bassdrum;[ta]=Konga>
(#: <[X1]=4, Drumsilabos> /Bata ta ...)
An ilumo (pronounced "ill-oomaw") is an indiko which is written together with the taktsilabos. The ilumo is defined in a rimarko. Ilumos are written either with a small consonant (c), except h, or with a capital and a small consonant (Cd), which in both cases may be followed by a number. A long ilumo in front of a column (c:) indicates where the manner of playing starts, the ilumo and a stop (c.) where it ends. A mere stop (.) ends the last ilumo and two points (..) end all ilumos. Whole rimarkos may be applied using columns and stops in the same way as ilumos. A short ilumo applies to only one taktsilabo, with which it is written together to form a tintsilabo ("tintsee-lahbaw") (cba, Cdba).
<Drumsilabos, [k]=Forceful beat>
(#: /Bata ktata /Bata ta /k:tata tata. /Bata ta)
(#: /Bata tata /Bata ta <Soft and cautious>: /ta tata /tata ta /ta tata /tata ta. /Bata tata ....)
A tonsilabo (pronounced "tawncee-lahbaw") is a taktsilabo with a certain relative wave frequency or tonalto ("tawn-ulltaw"). The tonalto of each tonsilabo is defined according to any chosen scale, which may be selected freely. The tonalto of a tonsilabo is indicated by its number relation to the frequency of the basic tone. Two tonsilabos in a silabo bracket enclosing a column state an interval ([la:do]). The absolute frequency of a basic tone is defined in an indiko by its tonsilabo in Hertz (Hz) or by name ("C", "C#" etc). Subsequently, it is alterable through a tone interval indiko (<[la:do]>). A tonsilabo of undetermined tonalto starts with a mute consonant (h or H).
<Tonsilaboj: [Do]=1, [Re]=1,1225, [Mi]=1,2599, [Fa]=1,3348, [So]=1,4983, [La]=1,6818, [Ti]=1,8877>
< [So:Do]=Kvint >
< [Do]=G >
(#: /DoRe Mi Fa So /FaMi Re Do o)
A tonciklo (pronounced "tawn-tseeclaw") is the main interval of the scale, usually an octave. The tonciklo number is the ratio between the frequency of a tonsilabo in one tonciklo and its frequency in the next tonciklo. A tonsilabo in the central tonciklo (the central octave) is written with a capital consonant and a small vowel (Ba). A tonsilabo in the lower (base pitch) tonciklo is written with capital letters only (BA), a tonciklo in the upper (high pitch) octave with only small letters (ba). A malaltiga sign in front of the consonant (,Ba) lowers the tonalto by three tonciklos, an altiga sign ('Ba) raises it by as much. In an alphabet which does not discern between capital and small letters, a comma will lower and an apostrophy will raise the tonalto by one tonciklo instead of three. A tonsilabo with a small consonant and a capital vowel (bA) means a tonsilabo in any tonciklo. The tonciklo number may be defined as the interval between the same tone in two tonciklos (<[do:Do]=2>).
(#: Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti do)
10 Points in time:
The same momentsigno (pronounced "maw-ment-siggnaw") in two simultaneous petsos mark an identical point in time or momento ("maw-mentaw"). A momentsigno in a petso is written with a partition sign (%) and a letter, which may be followed by a number. A momento reference is written with a partition sign which is followed by the measure number and may be followed by the number of the actual taktero, tonero, tonerero ("tawn-air-airaw"), i. e. fraction of tonero, and so on, divided by stops (.), or a momentsigno letter and, if need be, an apostrophy and the fojnumero. A momento reference containing a dash indicates a part of a petso either upto and including, or as from a momento. A momento reference at the end of a rimarko or an ilumo indicates how far the manner of playing applies. A tonsigno or a petso reference in front of a momento reference means that the indicated measures, or the part between the indicated momentsignos, are to be played again.
The indiko for tempo uses a column (:). A number in front of the column indicates the average number of takteros per second. A number after the column indicates the number of takteros per measure. An undefined number of takteros per measure is written with a questionmark (:?). A momentary relative change of tempo is indicated by a multiplication sign (*) and number in front of a column. A slide of tempo from one taktero to the next may be indicated by an underscore (_) in front of or between numbers before a column. A certain change in tempo per taktero is indicated by a positive (+) or negative (-) sign, the change value and a column. An absolute frequency in Hertz (Hz) of a tonsilabo may also be indicated as a tempo per second. A column and a number after a measure slash in a tonpetso show the number of takteros per measure.
<[La] = 440:>
(#: /:2 DoRe MiFa /:3 So La Ti /:1 do )
The indiko for intensity (relative sound pressure) is a number following an exclamation mark (!). Normal intensity is written as !5, maximum !9, minimum !1 and silence !0. The precision depends on the number of digits. Changes in intensity may be indicated by an underscore (!_) or positive (!+) or negative (!-) sign similarly to changes in tempo, though after an exclamation mark. An intensity indiko may be used as an ilumo.
(#: /!7DoRe MiFa /!4:So LaTi. /do )
The indiko for variations in the duration of different takteros in a measure is a measure slash (/) followed by numbers. A new measure in the indiko is marked by a slash, a new taktero by a blank ( ) and duration values for the fractions of the taktero are divided by apostrophies ('). The fraction values of a taktero are called onnombros (pronounced "awn-nombraws") and are shared evenly between its toneros. If the number of onnombros is not equal to the number of toneros, either the onnombros are distributed among the toneros or the other way around. Onnombros in a silabo bracket ([ ]) jointly correspond to one onnombro outside the bracket. If a measure contains more takteros than its rhythm indiko, then the indicated part is the former part of the measure and subsequent takteros are as long as the last indicated one. Intensity may be included in a rhythm indiko after the indication of duration.
A positive sign (+) shows that the surrounding toneros in a silabo bracket, takteros without bracket or petsos each in a petso bracket, sound simultaneously. A short petso connected in this way to a longer one, is repeated until the end of the longer one. A positive sign and a column may be used as an ilumo for a chord. A separate positive sign in a rimarko means "on the condition that". A question mark (?) may be used in the same manner as a positive sign, shows possible choice instead of synchronism and may be used with a column as an ilumo for alternatives. A question mark and a positive sign together means "with or without".
(#: SO+DoRe La+MiFa Do+So Do+do /[Ti+Mi]La [So+Re]La [Fa+La] Re ....)
(/DoRe MiFa So do /TiLa SoLa Fa Re ....) + (/SO LA Do o /Mi Re LA A ....)
(#: /DoRe MiFa So?LaSo do)
(/DoRe MiFa So do /TiLa SoLa Fa Re ....) ?+ (/SO LA Do o /Mi Re LA A ....)
A vortopetso (pronounced "vorrtaw-pettsaw") consists of words to be sung or spoken. A vortopetso is a petso with a vortosigno (&) instead of a tonsigno. To connect a melody to its songtext, it is possible to show the measures by measure slashes (/) in the vortopetso and even to number them, and to show the line breaks in the vortopetso by semicolons (;) both there and among the tonsilabos. A number after a vortopeco vowel shows on how many tonsilabos it sounds. Word syllables in a silabo bracket ([ ]) are all sung on one same tonsilabo. Verses are numbered using fojnumeros. Repetitions in a vortopetso may be shown by fojnombros (*) or fojnumeros (') in the same way as for a melody. Words after a multiplication sign and column (*:) are repeated in the same way in the following verses at four points (....). Words after an altiga sign and column (':) are repeated in the same verse after malaltiga sign and column (,:) and in the following verses words in the same positions are repeated in the same way in the following verses at four points. A vortopeco may not contain ilumos. The vortopeco language is indicated by a vortosigno (<& = English>). Comments are written in a rimarko after a vortosigno and column.
# Old McDonald:
(/DoDo DoSO /LALA SO /MiMi ReRe /Do
hSO /DoDo DoSO /LALA SO /MiMi ReRe /Do
hhSOSO /DoDo DoSO /DoDo Do /DoDoDoo DoDoDoo
/DoDoDoDo DoDo /DoDo DoSO /LALA SO /MiMi ReRe Do
&1: /Old McDonald /had a farm
and /on that farm he /had some cows
with a /mooh-mooh here a /mooh-mooh there
/here a mooh, there a mooh /everywhere a mooh-mooh.
/Old McDonald /had a farm
A tembriko ("temb-reekaw") is a method of describing the consistency and character of a sound, process or happening. A tembriko is applied through a tembrikajho ("tembree-kahzhaw"). A tembrikajho is an indiko consisting of an expression in brackets ( ( ), < > or [ ] ) after the name of the tembriko. The tembrikajho is a tembriko specific description of the desired effect. Now the tembriko Tonsilaba and its connection to word tembrikos have been described.